Frequently Asked Questions
Are Air Revolution Units Effective Against the Covid-19 Virus?
Yes, by way of extrapolation.
Allow us to explain:
Whilst we do not yet have a specific certified test result specifically with regard to the Covid-19 virus, we do know, and our earlier test data results from the Health Protection Agency (Porton-Downs, United Kingdom) substantiate the fact that our patented technology reliably eradicates >99% of all common airborne pathogens such as bacteria, fungal spores and viruses - including all enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry, which are distinctive biological characteristics of all coronaviruses typologies inclusive of the Covid-19 virus. This allows us, for the time-being, to be able to reasonably deduce that all Air Revolution Technologies Air Hygiene devices with our unique trivalent approach to ensuring superior Air Hygiene, are effective against the Covid-19 microorganism, and will eliminate, in precisely the same way that it is proven in respect of other airborne pathogen of both similar and varying structure and sizes.
It should be further noted that we have already reserved a testing slot with a globally renowned microbiology institute, and as soon as they have test capacity, we will be in a position to validate this predicted and extrapolated claim in respect of Covid-19.
What is Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI)?
UVGI is a sterilization method that uses ultraviolet (UV) light at sufficiently short wavelengths to break down cellular walls and the DNA of microorganisms.
UVGI has been widely and effectively used in a variety of applications, such as food, air and water purification over many years, and is therefore a tried, tested and trusted mode of sterilisation.
UV, in particular UV-C, has been a known mutagen at the cellular level for more than one-hundred years. The 1903 Nobel Prize for Medicine was awarded to Niels Finsen for his use of UV against the tuberculosis bacterium.
UVGI utilises the short wavelength of UV (253.7 nm) that is deadly to microorganisms.
UV-C is highly effective in destroying the nucleic acids in these organisms so that their DNA is disrupted by the UV-C radiation. This destroys their reproductive capabilities and kills them. The UV-C wavelength that causes this effect is rare at the Earth’s surface, as the Earth’s atmosphere, in particular the atmospheric ozone-layer, blocks it.
Using a UVGI device in certain environments like circulating air or water systems creates a deadly effect on micro-organisms such as pathogens, viruses, fungal spores and moulds and also any VOC’s and CAC’s that are prevalent and indeed, endemic, in these environments.
What is Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)?
Titanium Dioxide, also known as Titanium (IV) Oxide or Titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, with the chemical formula TiO2. Titanium Dioxide, particularly in the anatase form, is a natural photocatalyst under ultraviolet (UV) light.
Recently it has been found that Titanium Dioxide, when spiked with nitrogen ions or doped with certain metal oxides like Tungsten Trioxide, is also a photocatalyst under either visible or UV light. The strong oxidative potential of the positive electron holes created under photo-catalysis oxidizes water to create hydroxyl radicals. It can also oxidize oxygen or organic materials directly. Titanium dioxide is thus commonly added to substances such as paints, cements, windows, tiles or other products for its sterilizing, deodorizing and anti-fouling properties and is also used as a hydrolysis catalyst. The photocatalytic properties of Titanium Dioxide were discovered by Akira Fujishima in 1967 and were published in the peer reviewed scientific literature in 1972.
In Air Revolution Technologies™ proprietary coating emulsion - TsiBrid™ - we make use of a special nano-scaled version of TiO2, which, when used in conjunction with the various proprietary photocatalytic accelerants and enhancers inherent in the TsiBrid™ formulation, significantly enhances the production of the Hydroxyl Radical molecules that are of such fundamental importance to the efficacy and potency of our unique trivalent mode-of-action with regard to the delivery of safe, reliable and dependable Air Hygiene.
What is an Ionizer?
An air ionizer (either a positive or a negative or a bio-polar ion generator) is a device that uses high voltages to ionize (electrically charge) air molecules.
Negative ions, or anions, are particles carrying one or more extra electrons, conferring a net negative charge to the particle. Cations, on the other hand, are positive ions missing one or more electrons, resulting in a net positive charge.
Most commercial air purifier devices that offer ionization are designed to generate negative ions, as is the case with Air Revolution Technologies™ current devices - as this is considered to be the more beneficial polarity for human health and wellbeing. Another type of air ionizer is the ESD ionizer (a balanced ion generator) which is typically used to neutralize static charge. Recent technical developments have seen the emergence of Bi-Polar Ionizers (BPI) that alternate the production of streams of positive (cations) and negative (anions), which seem to offer the best of both sets of beneficial factors. This is a technical direction that Air Revolution Technologies™ is currently contemplating.
Functionally, ionization causes airborne particulates to be attracted to the spare electron in anion in an effect similar to that of static electricity. These ions are deionized by seeking earthed conductors, such as walls, ceilings and other surfaces. To increase the efficiency of this process, some commercially available products provide such accretive surfaces contained internally within the device itself.
Ionization technology has been widely used in many applications relative to human health and well-being, for example, to address and remediate nosocomial infections in British hospitals.
The SARS pandemic fuelled the desire for personal ionizers in the Far East, including in Japan, where many air handling products have been specialized to contain negative ion generators, including inter alia toothbrushes, refrigerators, air conditioners, air cleaners and washing machines.
What are Pathogens?
A pathogen (derived from the Greek word pathos meaning ‘suffering, passion’, and gignomai (gen-) ‘I give birth to’) an infectious agent, or more commonly, a germ), is a biological agent that causes disease to its host. Common examples include the TB bacteria, and the SARS, MERS and H1N1 viruses.
There are several biological pathways whereby harmful pathogens can invade a host; the principal pathways have different episodic time frames. The body contains many natural orders of defence against some of the common pathogens (such as pneumocystis) in the form of the human immune system and by some ‘helpful’ bacteria present in the human body’s normal flora. However, if the immune system or ‘good’ bacteria is damaged in any way (such as for example by chemotherapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or antibiotics being administered in order kill other pathogens), then pathogenic bacteria that were being held at bay can easily proliferate and cause harm to the host. Such cases are called ‘opportunistic infections’.
Today, while many medical advances have been made to safeguard against infection by malevolent pathogens, through the use of vaccination, antibiotics and fungicide, pathogens continue to threaten human life. Broad social advances such as air purification, food safety, personal hygiene, and water treatment have reduced the threat from many previously harmful pathogens.
What are Volatile Organic Compounds?
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s) refer to organic chemical compounds which have significant vapour-pressure and which can affect the environment and human health.
VOC’s are numerous, varied, and ubiquitous. Although VOC’s include both man-made and naturally occurring chemical compounds, it is the anthropogenic VOC’s that are regulated, especially for indoors where concentrations can be highest.
VOC’s are typically not acutely toxic but may have chronic effects. Because the concentrations are usually low and the symptoms slow to develop, analysis of VOC’s and their effects remains is a demanding area of concern and study.
Since people, today spend much of their time indoors, either at home or in an office, long-term exposure to VOC’s in the indoor environment can contribute to so-called ‘sick building syndrome’.
In offices, VOC’s are emitted from new furnishings, wall coverings, and office equipment such as photocopier machines, which can off-gas VOC’s into the ambient air.
Good ventilation and air conditioning (H-VAC) systems that incorporate air purification / air-hygiene mechanisms are helpful at reducing overall VOC emissions in the indoor environment. Studies also show that pathologies such as leukaemia and lymphoma can become more prevalent and can substantially proliferate as a consequence of prolonged exposure to VOC’s occurring in the indoor environment.
Some VOC’s are commonly found in indoor office environments, these include; toluene, formaldehyde, benzene and ethylene amongst many others. Many complex and compounded VOC’s are also found in tobacco smoke.
What is a Colony-forming Unit?
A colony-forming unit or CFU is used to determine the number of viable bacterial cells in a sample per ml. Hence, it tells the degree of contamination in samples of air, water, vegetables, soil or fruits, or the magnitude of the infection in humans and animals.
It is different from the direct microscopic counts that include both dead and living cells.
What is Sick Building Syndrome?
Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) is a combination of ailments (a syndrome) associated with an individual’s place of work (office building) or residence.
A 1984 World Health Organization (WHO) report into the syndrome suggested that up to 30% of new and remodelled buildings worldwide may be linked to symptoms of SBS, and today that figure is probably significantly higher.
Most sick building syndrome is related to poor Indoor Air Quality (IAQ).
Sick building causes are frequently pinned down to flaws in the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (H-VAC) systems. Other causes have been attributed to contaminants produced by outgassing of some types of building materials, volatile organic compounds (VOC’s), moulds, pathogens, improper exhaust ventilation of ozone (by-products of some office machinery), light industrial chemicals used within the office e.g. cleaning products, or lack of adequate fresh-air intake/air filtration.
What are Hydroxyl Radicals?
Radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atoms, molecules or ions with unpaired electrons in an open shell configuration. Free radicals may carry a positive, negative or zero charge. Even though they have unpaired electrons, by convention, metals and their ions or complexes with unpaired electrons are not radicals. With some exceptions, the unpaired electrons cause radicals to be highly chemically reactive.
The hydroxyl radical, OH-, is the neutral form of the hydroxide ion (OH–).
Hydroxyl radicals are highly reactive and consequently very short-lived; however, they form an important part of radical chemistry.
Hydroxyl radicals are produced during UV-light dissociation of H2O2 (already suggested in 1879).
In organic synthesis, hydroxyl radicals are most commonly generated by photolysis of 1-Hydroxy-2(1H)-pyridinethione.
The hydroxyl radical is often referred to as the ‘detergent’ of the troposphere because it reacts with many pollutants, often acting as the first step towards their neutralisation and removal. It also has an important role in eliminating some greenhouse gases like methane and ozone. The first reaction with many volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) is the removal of a hydrogen atom forming water and an alkyl radical.
What is Photodissociation?
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons. It is defined as the interaction of one or more photons with one target molecule.
Photodissociation is not limited to visible light. Any photon with sufficient energy can affect the chemical bonds of a chemical compound. Since a photon's energy is inversely proportional to its wavelength, electromagnetic waves with the energy of visible light or higher, such as ultraviolet light, x-rays and gamma rays are usually involved in such reactions.
What is a Photocatalyst?
In chemistry, photo-catalysis is the acceleration of a photoreaction in the presence of a catalyst.
In catalysed photolysis, light is absorbed by an substrate. In photogenerated catalysis, the photocatalytic activity (PCA) depends on the ability of the catalyst to create electron-hole pairs, which generate free radicals (hydroxyl radicals: -OH) able to undergo secondary reactions.
Its comprehension has been made possible ever since the discovery of water electrolysis by means of titanium dioxide.
When TiO2 is illuminated with light of sufficient energy, electron-hole pairs are excited so that additional electrons go across the band gap to conduction band, while holes stay in the valence band. The excited electrons may then be used for redox reactions at the surface of TiO2.
What is an Air Purifier?
An air purifier is typically a device designed to remove pathogens, volatile organic compounds and other contaminants from the ambient air in a particular environment. These devices are commonly marketed as being beneficial to allergy sufferers and asthmatics, and at reducing or eliminating second-hand tobacco smoke, other unpleasant odours, and particularly air pollution, which explains why so many air purifiers are produced and sold in China with its heavily air-polluted big cities and the constrained residential spaces.
Commercial grade air purifiers are manufactured and marketed as either small stand-alone units or larger units that can be affixed to the ceiling of a room.
In order to differentiate the superior Air Safety Index (ASI) quotients delivered by Air Revolution Technologies™ units in comparison to our competitors, we make a point of referring to our instruments as Air Hygiene Units. Air Revolution Technologies™ products are mostly intended for commercial use-case applications and are conceived, design and built accordingly.
What is Building Related Illness?
Building Related Illness (BRI) is a more severe condition than Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) and can also be caused by inherently poor air quality. It usually affects a smaller percentage of a building’s occupants. BRI tends to be the term used when the underlying cause of the condition has been identified by a physician.
BRI is usually a more severe condition than the more common and generally encountered SBS.
What are Nosocomial Infections?
Nosocomial infections are infections that are the result of either the occupancy and/or treatment in a hospital or other healthcare facility. Infections are considered nosocomial if they first appear 48 hours or more after hospital admission or within 30 days after discharge. This type of infection is also known as a hospital-acquired infections (HAI) and have become a major health risk that requires the focussed attention and adoption of remediative strategies.
What is an MRSA infection?
The term MRSA stands for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureu and is a more dangerous form of the common Staphylococcus infection.
MRSA is not effectively treated by penicillin or other antibiotics as traditional ‘Staph’ infections are, which is why they are of such concern. This is also why the virus can often be fatal if contracted, particularly if it is not properly diagnosed.
The first reported cases of the MRSA virus came from hospitals and were blamed on unsterile conditions or instruments, although it has subsequently been acknowledged that MRSA can be contracted through airborne transmission of the virus. MRSA often occurs in post-surgical wounds, which is the cause of the most fatalities that occur. A person who has gone through major surgery is already in a weakened state with a depressed / suppressed immune system and is not capable of effectively combating the MRSA virus, even with the help of antibiotics. Air Revolution Technologies Air Hygiene devices are proven to be effective against the MRSA pathogen.
What do we mean by Indoor Air Quality?
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) refers to the air quality within a building or a particular indoor space in that building as it relates to the health, comfort and wellbeing of the building’s occupants.
IAQ can be affected by microbial contaminants like viruses, bacteria, fungal spores and mould; various gases, including carbon monoxide, radon and volatile organic compounds (VOC’s); and other airborne particulates that can lead to adverse health conditions.
The quality of indoor air continues to deteriorate and is becoming a more serious health hazard than the outdoor air we breathe.
Application of air hygiene interventions and risk reduction strategies using photocatalytic oxidation technologies, such as those used by Air Revolution Technologies™, is a proven and effective way to combat IAQ problems.
Air Safety Index (ASI)
The concept of an Air Safety Index essentially encompasses the product of a certain measured numeric value of airborne organic bioburden and the cubic volume of an indoor space, along with several other pertinent environmental factors that are computed in a bespoke ASI algorithm.
The concept of an ASI is encapsulated and is embodied in Air Revolution Technologies™ proprietary and unique ‘Air Safety Index (ASI) Site Assessment & Monitoring Programme’.
Air Hygiene is qualitative assessment of the ambient air in a defined indoor environment, and a localised atmosphere, and encompasses, inter alia, the extent, effect and impact of both organic and inorganic bio-burden, temperature, humidity, ionisation and threshold and/or incidental odours.